THE FROZEN SHOULDER: UNKNOWN AND KNOWN KNOWNS

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Abstract The “frozen shoulder”, also know as adhesive capsulitis, is the most peculiar among the pathologies that can interest the shoulder. It has been described as a process that involves thickening and contracture of the capsule surrounding the shoulder joint. Frozen shoulder causes stiffness and pain in the shoulder, which reduces normal movement in the joint. In some cases, it can prevent movement in the shoulder altogether. Usually, only one shoulder is affected, although in approximately one in five cases the condition spreads to the other shoulder. The painfull makes it very difficult to carry out the full range of normal shoulder movements; in fact Codman coined the term of “frozen shoulder” because this disease “freezes” the functionality of the shoulder limiting the rom joint in the active and passive excursion of the joint with pain. The purpose of this review is that to illustrate the various proposals that are present on literature to explain and to take care of this disease, that is entirely not still known.
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