Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its etiology is multifactorial and involves a
combination of genetic and environmental factors. The interaction of these factors causes an imbalance in the
microbiota, leading to the activation of several immunological and inflammatory mechanisms. From an
immunological point of view, there seems to be an involvement of the TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway and
of the autoregulation of LyTh1. The studies show that in patients with CD the autoregulation of LyTh1 is lost due
to a reduced concentration of galectin-9 and a reduced TIM-3 expression in LyTh1. This could be one of the
reasons for the state of perpetual activation in LyTh1, resulting in the chronic inflammatory process.