Targeting epigenetics may offer the potential for achieving therapeutic selectivity in dis-orders of the central nervous system, by simultaneously modulating the expression of multiple genes involved in disease mechanisms. Histone acetylation, regulated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, affects chromatin condensation and gene transcrip-tion. DNA methylation is also involved in histone modification. Methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is associated with gene silencing. The development and functions of the human central nervous system are largely shaped by postnatal experiences, indicat-ing that both genetic and epigenetic information are indispensable. The epigenetic regu-latory mechanisms in the central nervous system have recently been object of intense re-search. As a result, mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been implicated in sev-eral neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews some common dis-orders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, mood disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, where epigenetic mechanisms may offer potential targets for experimental therapeutics.
PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A 1200G-PRETERM SUFFERING FROM CONGENITAL ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCKWritten by Antonio Di Mauro et al.
Congenital third-degree (complete) atrioventricular block requires pacemaker implantation where prenatal hydrops, low ventricular rate (<45 bpm) non-response to inotropes, and/or left ventricular dysfunction is present. A permanent pacemaker was implanted in a 1200g 9 day old preterm: the smallest newborn successfully subjected to this procedure, according to literature.
VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN FREE FLAPS:A STUDY OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY, HISTORY,CLINICAL SIGNS IN ANIMAL MODELWritten by Luigi Montesano et al.
The introduction of free flaps with microsurgical vascular anastomosis has made recon-structions, that would have been considered impossible forty years ago, possible. The limitations of this technique are mainly due to necrosis of the transplanted tissue caused by blockage of the vessels of the flap’s vascular pedicle due to the formation of thrombi at the level of the surgical anastomosis. Thrombosis is handled by removing the throm-bus in the shortest possible time, thus allowing restoration of the blood flow. Currently clinical observation is the best way to evaluate the survival of a flap but, being subjective, it is dependent on the observer’s experience. The purpose of this study is to identify the first sure sign of venous thrombosis in a murine model of complete venous occlusion of the pedicle of an inguinal flap, postoperatively and after the restoration of blood flow fol-lowing a period of stasis; so as to simulate the monitoring of re-thrombosis after recanali-zation of a thrombosed anastomosis.
It originates from the stroma sub-mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and as the name suggests, the papillomatous proliferation of squamous epithelium, instead of producing an exophytic growth, extends into the mucosa and as such is reversed.
In this retrospective study we report our experience in the surgical treatment of inverted sinonasal papilloma. The aim of the study was to compare results obtained by endoscopic surgery vs results obtained through open surgery.
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common cause of in-hospital death. In moderate or high risk patients undergoing laparotomy, acute and long-term mortality can be effec-tively reduced with an appropriate prophylactic drug treatment, while in low-risk patients undergoing laparoscopy, the correlation between the thromboembolism risk and the pro-cedure itself, as well as potential benefits of thromboprophylaxis are, at present, unclear.
Here we report the case of E., a 49-year-old woman with patent foramen ovale, consid-ered to be at low risk of thromboembolism, who experienced a sudden cardiopulmonary arrest following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and died four days later. . The purpose of this case report is to highlight the necessity of continuing large sample studies on the correlation between laparoscopic surgery and thromboembolism in low-risk patients.
Background: Pneumatic lithotripsy (PL) and Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy (LL) are two valid mini-invasive approaches in the treatment of urologic stones disease. The aim of this study was to compare stone free rates between these two treatment options.
Material and methods: From January 2010 to January 2011, 120 consecutive patients with single and primary ureteral stones were prospectively enrolled in this prospective study. The study was single-blinded and none of the patients knew which approach for stone fragmentation would be used.
Results: The ureteral stone-free rate (SFRs) in the PL group was 80.7% and 86.1 % in the LL group (p=0.002). The mean operating time was 60 (± 25) minutes in the LL group and 61 (± 21) minutes in the PL group, without significant differences (p=0.68). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that stone location was not significantly predictive of SFRs (p=0.47). None of the patients had blood transfusions and no other severe complications appeared in either group.
Conclusions: In our study LL was significantly associated with a stone 80.7% in the PL group and 86.1% in the LL group (p<0.05). Also, Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy was dem-onstrated to be the more efficacious endoscopic procedure for the treatment of ureteral stones, allowing stones to be successfully fragmented, with few complications.
This case report deals with a 30-year-old Brazilian woman who became anxious and de-pressed after her migration to Italy and two years of living there. At psychiatric assess-ment, she presented with mood deflection, difficulties in sleeping, sadness, anxiety and many somatic symptoms that began after her arrival in Italy and progressively worsened, eventually requiring psychiatric intervention.Today an increased number of mental disor-ders and somatisation symptoms tend to be observed among migrants, which are often related to stressful pre-migratory life events and Post-Migration Living Difficulties (PMLD). Management of these kinds of patients should be part of a program for Transcultural Psy-chiatry that integrates both medical treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) and addresses cultural differences to improve individual conditions of the patients.
Gratification is one of the functions necessary for the satisfaction of basic needs geared towards welfare and reproduction, which evolved in higher animal species. Over the years, several studies on the mechanisms through which gratification exerts its effects on the nervous system and is associated with feelings of pleasure have shown that the dopa-minergic system is the most important circuit acting as a biological basis for gratification. This article will review the current knowledge on the response of the midbrain dopa-minergic system to appetitive and aversive stimuli, as well as the role played within this context by the Lateral Habenula, a structure that has attracted great interest among re-searchers in the recent years.
Frequent antibiotic prescriptions for urinary infections (UI) promote the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. In order to identify effective antibiotics for the first line treatment of UI at the Galaţi Infectious Diseases Hospital, we performed a retrospective study based on disk diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing on bacterial strains from urine cultures. Urine samples were collected from hospitalized patients admitted with symptomatic UI during 2010. In total, 659 records were found of certified bacteriological UI, of which 82% were caused by Enterobacteriacea. Escherichia coli isolates were the most commonly encountered species of Enterobacteriaceae (83%). The median age of the patients with urinary E. coli was 48 [3; 87], sex ratio M/F= 56/399 and 9.8% of patients were HIV positive. Using the Carmeli scoring system for antibiotic resistance risk, we found that 86% of the E. coli isolates were community acquired infections. High level of resistance was evident for Ampiciline at 85%, Neoxazole at 54,6%, TMP-SMX at 45,6% and AmoxiClavulanate at 40,2%. The best sensitivity was obtained with 3rd generation cephalosporins and carbapenemes. The incidence of ESBL-positive strains was 7.4% (34/421). No ESBLpositive strain was identified in community acquired UI (Carmeli score 1). In conclusion, it is strongly recommended that the first line of antibiotic therapy at the Gala ţi Infectious Diseases Hospital should involve 3rd generation cephalosporins, while carbapenems should be reserved to patients with a Carmeli score of 2 or 3.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels present in many regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, being situated at the level of different neurotransmission pathways, participate in the function of many cerebral activities.
Consequently, qualitative or quantitative deficits of nicotinic receptors are responsible for dysfunctions of these brain activities; such dysfunctions can occur at different stages of life due to brain aging or numerous neurological and psychiatric diseases of the developmental age, adulthood and old age. Modifications of specific nAChR subtypes have been found localized in specific brain regions in each such disorder.
In this review, we will discuss some of the above-mentioned brain disorders, reporting the relevant nAChR changes discovered to date, and summarize the therapeutic prospects currently under development.
Palliative procedures are those usually used in the treatment of metastatic limb sarcoma. However given the impressive results obtained with hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (ILP), we tested the feasibility of isolated lung perfusion (ILuP), using the same regimen. Three patients with multiple metastases from limb sarcoma were included in this study.
ILP was applied in one patient resulting in limb preservation. Patients underwent 90minute ILuP, and subsequent metastasectomy. In all cases the procedure was completed without complications. No systemic toxicity developed. The only postoperative complication was one case of reversible interstitial and alveolar lung edema. The three patients are still alive and two of them were disease-free at a mean follow-up of 19 months. ILuP, with TNF and Melphaln, proved to be feasible and safe. This technique, in association with ILP, might improve long-term survival and quality of life in patients with multiple metastases from limb sarcoma.
This article presents the case of a 26 year old male heroin addict and chronic user of high doses of citalopram, who was found dead at his home. Toxicological analysis showed that the young man was in a state of chronic citalopram intoxication. The low opioid concen-tration detected excluded heroin overdose as the cause of death.
The heroin used by the man was characterized by a low percentage of opiates (heroin 0.1%, acetylcodeine 0.8%; 6-MAM 1.19%, codeine 0.2%) and a high percentage of cutting substances (caffeine 38%, acetaminophen 29%).
The pathogenetic mechanism underlying the man’s death was reconstructed through the integrated evaluation of analytical and pathological data together with consideration of the toxic effects of intravenous injection of heroin cut with a significant amount of caf-feine (although non-lethal) in the presence of high citalopram concentrations.