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A harmful algal bloom (HAB) is defined as a bloom that has deleterious effects on plants, animals or humans. Marine algal toxins are responsible for an array of human illnesses associated with consumption of seafood or exposure to aerosolized toxins. The effects of algal toxins are generally observed as acute intoxications, whereas the environmental health effects of chronic exposure to low levels of algal toxins are, to date, only poorly documented and an emerging issue. Consumption of seafood contaminated with algal toxins can result in five types of seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poison-ing, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poi-soning and ciguatera fish poisoning. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on HAB-related issues in the Mediterranean Sea.

 In the contemporary society an International Health Elective (IHE) represents a strategic tool in order to implement future medical doctor’s education. In Italy, in the last decade, an increasing interest of trainees and residents to IHE and opportunities was documented and supported by the reorganization of the Italian residency programs, provided by the Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). Aim of the present study was to collect data on perceived need of medical residents for an IHE.
A structured questionnaire was developed and administered to medical residents of Palermo’s University who underwent their annual visit to the Occupational Health Physician Ambulatory (OHPA) of Palermo’s University Hospital, in the period between March and October 2011.
Medical residents more prone to undergo an IHE were, younger than 29 years old (p <0.01), attending the new educational system (p 0.02) and surgical residents (p= 0.0001). A negative opinion about the formative quality performances of the residency program was significantly associated with surgical residencies (p= 0.002). Future Italian surgeons are more prone to undergo an IHE and this statement is probably related to the not satisfying residency program. Residents attending the old educational system consider the IHE as a way to implement their professional perspectives possibly for their more realistic professional perspective facing an approaching future full of work uncertainties.
Considering the future competition between medical professionals working in different EU contexts, the Italian Government should implement future medical education policy in order to provide for a Healthcare “without Border” in the EU.

Melanoma is a particularly aggressive type of skin cancer, and its incidence has been in-creasing steadily since the 1970s. 

In this article we have reviewed the main risk factors for this disease in particular: sun exposure, the use of tanning beds or sunlamps and skin phototype.

We also mention the importance of primary prevention in subjects at risk to reduce the onset of cutaneous melanoma.


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