In 2015, a whole body dissection course was proposed by the University of Palermo (UoP), Palermo, Italy, thanks to the cooperation with the University of Malta (UoM), Msida, Malta. The purpose of this study was to show the difference between the study of anatomy on books and on corpses. The article focuses its attention on the dissection method of the upper limb. The study was performed on two corpses, a male and a female, by using a basic surgeon kit. Blunt dissection method was used for fasciae, innards and to isolate vascular-nervous structures from the fat; we used scalpel for cutis, sub cutis, muscles and tendons. We compared the anatomy figured by books and cadaver’s anatomy. We separated muscles, fasciae, veins, arteries and nerves of the upper limb from the shoulder to the hand. The upper limb dissection shows the difference between how a real body appears and how books represent it.
PSEUDOANEURYSM OF SUPERIOR THYROID ARTERY FOLLOWING A TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: A CASE PRESENTATIONWritten by Frank Rikki Canevari et al.
The pseudo-aneurysm is an encapsulated hematoma of post-traumatic origin which is in communication with the lumen of the artery of relevance. We present a rare case of pseudo-aneurysm occurring after superior thyroid trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and external cardioversion. Singular occurrence in otolaryngology, if not recognized early a pseudo-aneurysm can result in dramatic events such cataclysmic bleeding or acute occlusion of the upper airway.
The oculomotor nucleus is divided into: 1. somatic medial column innervating the superior rectus muscle and somatic lateral column, further subdivided into a lateral column innervating the inferior rectus, inferior oblique and medial rectus muscles; 2. central nucleus innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle; 3. visceral nucleus innervating the pupillary sphincter muscle, consisting of the following two groups of neurons: cholinergic, preganglionic neurons supplying the ciliary ganglion, termed the Edinger-Westphal preganglionic (EWpg) neuron population, and the centrally projecting, peptidergic neurons, termed the Edinger-Westphal centrally projecting (EWcp) population. A detailed understanding of the position of both nuclei and their subgroups supplying the individual muscles is an essential prerequisite for eye movement assessment, offering a simple clinical method for diagnosing eventual dysfunctions of eye movement generation pathways.
EUROMEDITERRANEAN BIOMEDICAL JOURNAL: THE RENEWED MANUSCRIPT LAYOUT AND WEB RENDERING FORESHADOW FURTHER JOURNAL IMPROVEMENTWritten by Editorial Team
In January 2006, a new journal, Capsula Eburnea, was born into the Italian scientific publishing scene with the initial goal of creating, at the same time, “an open scientific forum and a blog”, based on the premise that “in medicine, nothing should be considered stable, immutable or unsusceptible to critical review at any time, by any scientist”. The Editorial Team progressively sought to improve the quality of the manuscripts published, introducing the requirement for all articles to be written in English, and changed the Journal’s name to EuroMediterranean Biomedical Journal in 2012. Over the last five years, approximately 125 articles by young doctors (including original articles, reviews, commentaries, notes, and abstract books) have been published. The editorial board are confident that the new publishing layout and the renewed web-portal of the journal, introduced in this editorial, represent an essential upgrade after over 10 years of editorial activity, and that these improvements will be appreciated by our authors and, especially, our readers.
In the senile population, regular physical activity and reduction of a sedentary lifestyle lead to a series of positive effects. Such as, increased independence in daily activities and personal care, higher self-esteem, a better quality of life, a higher life expectancy and a decrease in mortality. Moreover, physical, psychological, and cognitive functions can also improve. With regards to this notion, the Walking Football (WF) activity was started in England; a sport designed for the needs population segment, who, due to overweight and other typical diseases of old age, has a limited mobility and can only play sports with lowmoderate cardiovascular effort. WF is a new sport mainly created for people over 50, i.e. the population diagnosed with chronic degenerative diseases, and the actual increase of obesity gradually cause to abstain from a regular physical activity. The game is played 7 vs. 7 and all players must only walk; running is considered a foul. To avoid sudden movements and reduce the risk of injury, the ball must be always kept on the ground, and slide tackles and an aggressive behavior are prohibited. This sport, a slow variation of football, is considered a low risk sport activity for the low incidence of traumatic events and can be practiced safely because the cardiovascular effort is minimum. WF comes directly from football, which is considered the most popular sport in the world. It is also associated with positive social and motivational factors that may facilitate compliance to the sport, which help maintain a physically active lifestyle. WF is still not widespread in Italy, and our hope is that it can become, in a short time, a reference for the sports designed for the elderly.
COLON MICROBIAL COMPOSITION IS CORRELATED WITH THE SEVERITY OF COLITIS INDUCED BY 2,4,6-TRINITROBENZENESULFONIC ACID IN MICEWritten by Giovanna Traina et al.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in some bacterial species of colonic microbiota, the clinical signs and the intestinal changes in mice with 2,4,6trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. CD-1 male mice were randomly divided into three groups and inoculated intrarectally with saline, ethanol or TNBS solutions. Ethanol and TNBS treatments induced weight loss accompanied by mild and severe inflammation of the colon mucosa, respectively. However, TNBS-treated mice displayed significant differences compared to the saline group in terms of disease activity index and histological scoring. Both ethanol and TNBS groups showed an increased prevalence of Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp., a decrease in Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts, as well as changes in the relative proportions of bacteria in the colon. The results confirm the validity of TNBS treatment to study the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in CD-1 mice. Gut microbiota may become a diagnostic biomarker with therapeutic potential for IBD in the future.
Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. Surgeons select the technique that best suits each patient based on the surgeon’s experience, specific patient characteristics and requirements. The purpose of this article is to report the complications that occurred in patients who underwent reduction mammoplasty at our institution, and to compare our data to the current literature. We studied the postoperative complications from 82 breast reductions (41 patients), which used superior pedicle (n = 6), inferior pedicle (n = 36), medial pedicle (n = 10) or Thorek (n = 30) techniques. The most common postoperative complications were hematoma (7%), seroma (2.5%), delayed wound healing (14%), partial nipple loss (4.8%), infection (10%) and asymmetry (12%). We observed complications in 64% of patients that underwent inferior pedicle breast reduction with an inverted T scar. One possible explanation for this complication rate is that inferior pedicle Wise-pattern mammoplasty is usually performed for breasts with sternal notch-tonipple distances greater than 32 cm, or for symptomatic macromastia, and greater amounts of resected tissue are known to be associated with higher complication rates. Nevertheless, this technique is associated with excellent patient satisfaction. Indeed, complications are quite frequent and may occur even in the most suitable candidates, but do not compromise the final result.
PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASE ORGANISMS IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN LEBANON: A CASE CONTROL STUDYWritten by Elie El-Hajj et al.
In Lebanon, clinical information about community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTI) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram negative bacteria (GNB), is scarce. A population based case-control study was conductedwhereby42 cases were matched to 42 controls. The prevalence of ESBL producing strains was 14.15%. Univariate analysis showed two statistically significant independent risk factors for ESBL producing strains: antibiotic use during the last three months (p<0.0001), and urinary catheterization during the last six months (p=0.0034); and one protective factor: age group 18-50 years (p=0.011). Multivariate analysis showed antibiotic use as the strongest predictor for CAUTI due to ESBL-producing GNB. Coresistance of ESBL producing strains to antibiotics was significantly higher compared with non ESBL strains: ciprofloxacin (75% vs 21.4%), trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole (71.1% vs 35.7%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (77.7% vs 9.5%).This study confirms that ESBL-producing GNB strains constitute a notable cause of CAUTI in Lebanon. These results can be used to guide appropriate treatment of CAUTI and targeted infection control measures
Introduction. This study aimed to analyze the influence of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on bone growth in experimental instrumented interbody spinal fusion (IISF).
Methods. 16 adult sheep underwent IISF at L3–L4 level using a cylindrical threaded expanding titanium cage with morselized iliac crest cancellous autograft. In 8 animals (Group I) this was augmented with PRP, in the remaining 8 (Group II), it was not. Ra-diographs of the spine were taken preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months, moreover autoptic vertebral samples were obtained and evaluated histologically and by CT scan at 8 months.
Results. Histological analysis revealed more evident new bone formation with bony bridge into the cages in Group I than Group II. There were relevant differences be-tween the groups with regard to interbody fusion calculated using trabecular bone score (p<0.05).
DISCRIMINATING DIABETIC PTs OF SOME RURAL & URBAN AREAS OF BANGLADESH:DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS APPROACHWritten by Jannatul Fardus et al.
The present analysis was conducted in the American International University of Bang-ladesh using the data collected from 900 respondents. Among the respondents 70.6 percent are diabetic patients. Finding reveals that the largest percentage of patients is of the age group ≥ 50+ years. About 34 percent patients are suffering from Type II diabetes and among them 63.3 percent are in the age group ≥50+ years. Higher prevalence rates of diabetes are observed among farmers and retired persons. The diabetic patients are discriminated from non-diabetic respondents due to the variables age, residence and work type. Most important variables for discriminating diabetic pa-tients are age, education and work-type.