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 Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) pose a significant clinical and eco-nomic burden worldwide. Surveillance has been associated with a reduction of HAI rates in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, although the particular reasons for this decrease are still difficult to determine. The present study was conducted in order to report HAI surveillance data during an eight-year period in five ICUs in Catania.

Methods: A patient-based HAI surveillance was conducted in the framework of the first four surveys of the Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in ICUs network (SPIN-UTI) of the GISIO-SItI. Each survey consisted in a six-months surveillance con-ducted in: 2006-2007; 2008-2009; 2010-2011 and 2012-2013. During the study pe-riod, HAI cumulative incidence, incidence density and mortality were calculated overall and for each survey.

Findings: From 2006 to 2013, a total of 2070 patients were admitted in the five par-ticipating ICUs and were included in the study. The cumulative incidences of infected patients in each survey were: 13.3, 17.0, 18.9 and 8.9 per 100 patients, respectively. Accordingly, the risk of ICU-acquired infections increased in the third survey compared with the first (RR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.06-1.92) but it decreased in the fourth survey compared with the second (RR: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86) and the third (RR: 0.57; 95%CI: 0.43-0.76). A similar trend was observed considering incidence of infections and incidence density. Although mortality did not show a significant trend between the four surveys, the risk of death increased for infected patients.

Conclusions: The patient-based cohort design allowed us to analyze HAI indicators during an eight-years period, in five ICUs in Catania. Particularly, the risk of ICU-acquired infections increased in the third survey compared with the first, whereas it decreased in the fourth survey compared with the second and the third surveys. Fur-thermore, mortality remained unchanged, however the risk of death significantly in-creased for infected patients, in each survey. Surveillance data are useful to support policymakers and leaders to make evidence-based decisions in the healthcare setting, to plan and improve programs, services and interventions for preventing, managing and treating HAIs.

The so called Heat-shock proteins (Hsp) are the product of different genes induced by a sudden and/or short-lasting temperature elevation. However, the term Hsp is generally used with great flexibility to indicate proteins induced also by other stressors besides heat shock. Many Hsp are also chaperones since they assist nascent polypeptides to fold correctly. Other canonical functions of chaperones include, in addition to protein folding, assisting protein refolding and translocation through membranes, ushering proteins damaged beyond repair to degradation, and dissolution of protein aggregates. Hsp play a key role in various human chronic diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and in acute injury (i.e. trauma). Furthermore, Hsps may be used as possible circulating biomarkers helpig the clinicians for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. In the present review we focus our attention on the possible role and different clinical significance of two important heat shock proteins (i.e. heme oxygenase-1 and Hsp70) in traumatic injury. 


An efficient Autoseed Region Growing with Morphological Masking(ARGMM) is implemented in this paper on the Lung CT Slice to segment the 'Lung Nodules',which may be the potential indicator for the Lung Cancer. The segmentation of lung nodules carried out in this paper through Multi-Thresholding, ARGMM and Level Set Evolution. ARGMM takes twice the time compared to Level Set, but still the number of suspected segmented nodules are doubled, which make sure that no potential cancerous nodules go unnoticed at the earlier stages of diagnosis. It is very important not to panic the patient by finding the presence of nodules from Lung CT scan. Only 40 percent of nodules can be cancerous. Hence, in this paper an efficient Shape and Texture analysis is computed to quantitatively describe the segmented lung nodules. The Frequency spectrum of the lung nodules is developed and its frequency domain features are computed. The Complete Local binary pattern of lung nodules is computed in this paper by constructing the combine histogram of Sign and Magnitude Local Binary Patterns. Local Configuration Pattern is also determined in this work for lung nodules to numerically model the microscopic information of nodules pattern. 


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