INVASIVE PNEUMOCOCCAL DISEASES IN CHILDREN AGED 1-59 MONTHS IN SICILY, ITALY: IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVE FAMILY PAEDIATRICIAN SURVEILLANCE AND VACCINATION COVERAGEWritten by Emanuele Amodio et al.
Methods: The study was carried out in Sicily and involved about 30,000 children, aged 1-59 months, actively monitored by 100 family pediatricians during 2010 and 2011. All children who met the inclusion criteria were considered eligible, recorded using a stan-dardized case report form and investigated for the presence of S. pneumoniae in speci-mens from sterile sites.
Results: None of the 40 eligible children was confirmed as a case of invasive pneumococ-cal disease. The incidence rate of invasive pneumococcal disease cases was 0.0/100,000 in both years. Regional childhood pneumococcal vaccination coverage rates were 90.7% in 2010 and 92.0% in 2011.
Conclusions: Our results show that during the study period invasive pneumococcal dis-ease cases were rare in Sicilian children, suggesting a very effective control of the disease in a region with very high vaccination coverage against S. pneumoniae.
In January 2006, a new journal, Capsula Eburnea, was born in the Italian scientific pub-lishing scene, with the initial goal of creating, at the same time, "an open scientific forum and a blog". Until December 2009, the vast majority of manuscripts was still published in Italian, restricting the number of readers.
From the end of 2009, the journal has undergone extensive changes, becoming indexed in the main scientific search engines (Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journal, Google Scholar, Ulrich Periodical Directory), and renewing its Editorial Team with a role reassign-ment and expanding the Editorial Board to up to 40 young doctors with proven scientific experience from 15 countries around the world, working as researchers, PhD students, senior medical staff, research fellows or doctors in specialist training.
Finally, the journal has progressively encouraged the publication of articles in English, through an endorsed English translation service provided by native English speaking translators. This service became mandatory for all peer-reviewed articles accepted by the Journal in 2011.
At the same time, the Editorial Board unanimously decreed to change the name of the journal into "Euromediterranean Biomedical Journal for young doctors (formerly: Capsula Eburnea)" from January 2012.
Today, the journal is fully open access (including the archives of Capsula Eburnea) with the possibility to download articles for free, and the publication process involves a blind peer review of each article by at least two scientists. During its first two years of activity, the Euromediterranean Biomedical Journal (EMBJ) published 48 scientific articles (17 origi-nal articles, 14 reviews, 13 case report, two technical reports and two commentaries) and one edition of Conference Proceedings.
Muscle wasting is a degeneration of the muscle tissue that can derive from several patho-logical situations, but most of the times is caused by a condition of cachexia in patients with cancer or other diseases. This degeneration results from a decrease in protein syn-thesis and an increase in protein degradation. This is caused mainly by the overexpres-sion of ubiquitin-proteosome-system (UPS) elements, under the control of factors re-leased in cachexia that lead cells toward a catabolic rather than an anabolic pathway. Both skeletal and cardiac muscles can be affected by muscle wasting and until now an effective treatment is unknown. Only experimental trials of exercise training bring to a recovery of mass loss, but many researchers think that a potential future treatment may be represented by stem cells.
Targeting epigenetics may offer the potential for achieving therapeutic selectivity in dis-orders of the central nervous system, by simultaneously modulating the expression of multiple genes involved in disease mechanisms. Histone acetylation, regulated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, affects chromatin condensation and gene transcrip-tion. DNA methylation is also involved in histone modification. Methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is associated with gene silencing. The development and functions of the human central nervous system are largely shaped by postnatal experiences, indicat-ing that both genetic and epigenetic information are indispensable. The epigenetic regu-latory mechanisms in the central nervous system have recently been object of intense re-search. As a result, mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been implicated in sev-eral neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews some common dis-orders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, mood disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, where epigenetic mechanisms may offer potential targets for experimental therapeutics.
PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A 1200G-PRETERM SUFFERING FROM CONGENITAL ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCKWritten by Antonio Di Mauro et al.
Congenital third-degree (complete) atrioventricular block requires pacemaker implantation where prenatal hydrops, low ventricular rate (<45 bpm) non-response to inotropes, and/or left ventricular dysfunction is present. A permanent pacemaker was implanted in a 1200g 9 day old preterm: the smallest newborn successfully subjected to this procedure, according to literature.
VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN FREE FLAPS:A STUDY OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY, HISTORY,CLINICAL SIGNS IN ANIMAL MODELWritten by Luigi Montesano et al.
The introduction of free flaps with microsurgical vascular anastomosis has made recon-structions, that would have been considered impossible forty years ago, possible. The limitations of this technique are mainly due to necrosis of the transplanted tissue caused by blockage of the vessels of the flap’s vascular pedicle due to the formation of thrombi at the level of the surgical anastomosis. Thrombosis is handled by removing the throm-bus in the shortest possible time, thus allowing restoration of the blood flow. Currently clinical observation is the best way to evaluate the survival of a flap but, being subjective, it is dependent on the observer’s experience. The purpose of this study is to identify the first sure sign of venous thrombosis in a murine model of complete venous occlusion of the pedicle of an inguinal flap, postoperatively and after the restoration of blood flow fol-lowing a period of stasis; so as to simulate the monitoring of re-thrombosis after recanali-zation of a thrombosed anastomosis.
It originates from the stroma sub-mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and as the name suggests, the papillomatous proliferation of squamous epithelium, instead of producing an exophytic growth, extends into the mucosa and as such is reversed.
In this retrospective study we report our experience in the surgical treatment of inverted sinonasal papilloma. The aim of the study was to compare results obtained by endoscopic surgery vs results obtained through open surgery.
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common cause of in-hospital death. In moderate or high risk patients undergoing laparotomy, acute and long-term mortality can be effec-tively reduced with an appropriate prophylactic drug treatment, while in low-risk patients undergoing laparoscopy, the correlation between the thromboembolism risk and the pro-cedure itself, as well as potential benefits of thromboprophylaxis are, at present, unclear.
Here we report the case of E., a 49-year-old woman with patent foramen ovale, consid-ered to be at low risk of thromboembolism, who experienced a sudden cardiopulmonary arrest following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and died four days later. . The purpose of this case report is to highlight the necessity of continuing large sample studies on the correlation between laparoscopic surgery and thromboembolism in low-risk patients.
Background: Pneumatic lithotripsy (PL) and Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy (LL) are two valid mini-invasive approaches in the treatment of urologic stones disease. The aim of this study was to compare stone free rates between these two treatment options.
Material and methods: From January 2010 to January 2011, 120 consecutive patients with single and primary ureteral stones were prospectively enrolled in this prospective study. The study was single-blinded and none of the patients knew which approach for stone fragmentation would be used.
Results: The ureteral stone-free rate (SFRs) in the PL group was 80.7% and 86.1 % in the LL group (p=0.002). The mean operating time was 60 (± 25) minutes in the LL group and 61 (± 21) minutes in the PL group, without significant differences (p=0.68). Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that stone location was not significantly predictive of SFRs (p=0.47). None of the patients had blood transfusions and no other severe complications appeared in either group.
Conclusions: In our study LL was significantly associated with a stone 80.7% in the PL group and 86.1% in the LL group (p<0.05). Also, Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy was dem-onstrated to be the more efficacious endoscopic procedure for the treatment of ureteral stones, allowing stones to be successfully fragmented, with few complications.
This case report deals with a 30-year-old Brazilian woman who became anxious and de-pressed after her migration to Italy and two years of living there. At psychiatric assess-ment, she presented with mood deflection, difficulties in sleeping, sadness, anxiety and many somatic symptoms that began after her arrival in Italy and progressively worsened, eventually requiring psychiatric intervention.Today an increased number of mental disor-ders and somatisation symptoms tend to be observed among migrants, which are often related to stressful pre-migratory life events and Post-Migration Living Difficulties (PMLD). Management of these kinds of patients should be part of a program for Transcultural Psy-chiatry that integrates both medical treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) and addresses cultural differences to improve individual conditions of the patients.
Gratification is one of the functions necessary for the satisfaction of basic needs geared towards welfare and reproduction, which evolved in higher animal species. Over the years, several studies on the mechanisms through which gratification exerts its effects on the nervous system and is associated with feelings of pleasure have shown that the dopa-minergic system is the most important circuit acting as a biological basis for gratification. This article will review the current knowledge on the response of the midbrain dopa-minergic system to appetitive and aversive stimuli, as well as the role played within this context by the Lateral Habenula, a structure that has attracted great interest among re-searchers in the recent years.