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Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions involving brain capillaries. They may occur sporadically or be inherited as autosomal dominant character. Due to incomplete penetrance, CCMs incidence is underestimated and, overall sporadic cases, are often accidentally diagnosed. Rarely CCMs are linked to other pathological conditions. Here we present the first case in literature of a young woman affected by sporadic CCM, pituitary adenoma, Hashimoto thyroiditis and mental illness of unknown etiology. Symptoms’ analysis suggests that she may suffer of Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), a condition that in very few cases develops together with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Genetic bases of HE are still unknown and symptomatology is very heterogeneous. This paper is a preliminary report of the case and is focused on complexity of clinical manifestations that makes the diagnosis uncertain. If our hypothesis will be confirmed by further analysis, our aim will be to clarify genetic causes of HE.                   

Published in Embj

The authors describe a case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following subarachnoid anaesthesia, characterized by operative difficulties and lack of patient collaboration. After anaesthesia, the patient reported a positional headache and on the 5th day following surgery, he developed a frontal tensive headache with dysphoric and depressive  symptoms. On the 9th day he presented with emesis, hypostenia of the upper left limb and ipsilateral positive Babinsky. The diagnosis was made only on the 10th day.  Genetic analyses showed a homozygous mutation of methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase associated to hyperhomocysteinemia (21,7μM). The recurrence of post-dural puncture headaches is very frequent in patients undergoing subarachnoid anesthesia, but special attention is required in the event of headache, as well as associated clinical signs and other risk factors, in order to achieve a precocious diagnosis and allow the physician to start a suitable therapy.

Published in Embj

The gradual increase in shoulder implants has resulted in a parallel increase in periprosthetic fractures of the humerus. Currently, there are no definite certainties about the best methods of treatment and there are no adequate devices to ensure optimal healing. Undoubtedly, the multitude of experience in treating femoral periprosthetic fractures can be a guide used to improve the approach to periprosthetic fractures of the humerus. The use of metallic fixation devices, in combination with bone grafts, could represent a favourable mixed mechanical and biological solution in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures of the humerus. This article presents a case of periprosthetic humeral fracture in a 77-year-old woman with reverse shoulder prosthesis.

Published in Embj

Clinical use of Amplatzer Vascular Plug in central and peripheral vascular system has been extensively described in the literature. We present a case of occlusion of  left vertebral artery (LVA) performed by deploying an Amplatzer Vascular Plug, in addition to microspheres plus coils for embolization of the deep cervical branches that feed a cervical metastasis involving the left VA. After the endovascular intervention, the patient underwent surgical resection of the lesion. The application of the device, the use of multiple embolic materials, as well as the angiographic and clinical results of the procedure, were evaluated because not previously reported in the literature. Hence, we provide an updated literature review about clinical use of Amplatzer Vascular Plug in supra-aortic vessels.

Published in Embj

Munchausen syndrome is a complex type of abuse, which is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in clinical practice, and has harmful consequences for children. Its relationship with child abuse, of which it is a variety, must be recognized in clinical and forensic practice. The authors report herein two observed cases of different types of Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP). The first, is the most severe form ofMSbP, with induced, true illness and related pathological symptoms into victim. The second case is a moderate form, much more complex to detect, in which a perpetrator parent simulates and aggravates the child‘s illness. Adequate training of health professionals and investigators is essential in revealing cases of MSbP. Diagnosis must be based on the study of the different forms of "abuse" and the knowledge of clinical protocols used to validate any suspected behaviour which could be potentially harmful to the child. Moreover, a lack of training may lead to misleading interpretations of medical history interpretation and fallacious conclusions. Our study aims to review the features that are to be considered in a suspected case of MSbP, in accordance with a recently updated consensus statement by the Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Published in Embj

The pseudo-aneurysm is an encapsulated hematoma of post-traumatic origin which is in communication with the lumen of the artery of relevance. We present a rare case of pseudo-aneurysm occurring after superior thyroid trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and external cardioversion. Singular occurrence in otolaryngology, if not recognized early a pseudo-aneurysm can result in dramatic events such cataclysmic bleeding or acute occlusion of the upper airway.

Published in Embj
Published in Embj
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