Rectal fistula is a rare complication that may occur during and after radical prostatectomy, regardless of the applied surgical technique. It accounts for about ≤ 1% of surgical complications. Patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy associated with prior pelvic radiotherapy, previous rectal surgery and transurethral re-section of the prostate have an increased risk for incidence of anorectal fistula. This review analyzes recent original studies and reviews. The studies evaluated deal with important prognosis and incidence rates, while studies related to the therapeutic resolution of the problem were excluded. The four different types of surgical techniques (ORP, RPP, LRP and RARP) to remove the prostate were also compared, in order to identify the best method associated with the fewest complications. This study aims to evaluate specific literature in order to understand which surgical technique is associated with the lowest risk of this complication, and the prognostic factors that lead to a higher risk of rectal injuries.
Facial aging is a complex process and often poses a challenge for plastic and aesthetic surgeons. Injectable fillers and autologous adipose tissue are widely used for the restoration of soft tissue volume. However, lipotransfer currently lacks standardization and its unpredictable reabsorption rate remains an unresolved issue. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that could be responsible for the main rejuvenation capabilities of fat grafts. Currently, ASCs are administered in conjunction with autologous fat, while injectable vehicles such as hyaluronic acid, or other injectable biomaterials, are under study for the treatment of facial aging with promising results. Indeed, bioengineered fillers are at a very early stage of development, and could be further developed as semi-permanent fillers with biological properties of engrafted adipose tissue. ASCs could emerge as an effective and novel anti-aging therapeutic agent. However, extensive analysis of their actual effectiveness and mechanism of action are required.
Coffee contains a wide variety of bioactive compounds including polyphenols, melanoidins, and diterpenes. Coffee consumption may have either neutral or beneficial effects toward human health. In this review, we summarize current evidence regarding the association between coffee consumption and breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of coffee. The epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effect of coffee towards postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer. However, no statistical association was found between coffee and ovarian cancer. The chemo-preventive effects of coffee phytochemicals may include activation of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory response. Finally, coffee bioactive components where shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, as well as modulation of impaired angiogenesis.
This paper summarizes, in a modern fashion and with a number of molecular, functional and magnetic resonance imaging details, the main morphological data about the trigeminal complex (i.e., trigeminal nerve, ganglion and nucleus). Indeed, this information is the basis to understand pathophysiology and semiotics of diseases involving these anatomical structures.
In recent years, the number of contrastographic exams has increased considerably, compared to an increase in the complications related to this type of interventional approach. A number of specialists (interventional radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, cardiac surgeons, etc.) have to deal with complications related to the procedure or contrast medium (CM) used. With regard to the latter, contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is commonly defined as an increase in serum creatinine (sCr) concentration of 0.5 mg / dL or 25% above baseline within 48 h of CM administration. It is the third most common cause of hospital - acquired renal failure, with an incidence rate that varies from 1 to 25% depending on patient comorbidities. It carries with it a lifelong dialysis therapy risk of 0.5 - 2%. CIN is a condition that can affect anyone subjected to a contrastographic exam, although there are groups at increased risk. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the methods used for CIN management, and detail the risk factors associated, with particular emphasis on score systems created to categorise patients according to CIN risk after procedure. The aim is also to create an easy and quick tool to guide doctors presented with a patient facing an injection of CM for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The current treatment regimes for glioblastoma demonstrated a low efficiency and offer a poor prognosis. Advancements in conventional treatment strategies have only yielded modest improvements in overall survival. The heat shockproteins, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and Hsp90, serve these pivotal roles in tumor cells and have been identified as effective targets for developing therapeutics. This topic review summarizes the current preclinical and clinical evidences and rationale to define the potential of HO-1 and Hsp90 in GBM progression and chemoresistance.
In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, this review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.
Gene expression in mammalians is a very finely controlled mechanism, and bidirectional promoters can be considered one of the most compelling examples of the accuracy of genic expression coordination. Asrecently reported, a bidirectional promoter regulates the expression of the PDCD10 (whose mutations cause familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCMs) and SERPINI1 gene pair, even though they are non-homologous genes. The aim of this study was to identify any potential common roles of these two coregulated genes. An in-silico approach was used to identify functional correlations, using the BioGraph, IPA® and Cytoscape tools and the KEGG pathway database. The results obtained show that PDCD10 and SERPINI1 may co-regulate some cellular processes, particularly those related to focal adhesion maintenance. All common pathways identified for PDCD10 and SERPINI1 are closely associated with the pathogenic characteristics of CCMs; we thus hypothesize that genes involved in these networks may contribute to the development of CCMs.
The practice of sport, intended not just as a physical activity performed exclusively for athletic competition, represents a key element for growth on an emotional and social level. Practicing sports can help to enhance one’s self- and body awareness through multidimensional dynamic and ludic activity. In this context, sport becomes an educational and training tool, and is often a forerunner of social change. Sports practice combining physical activity with recreational activity, can, in fact, promote health and longevity, as well as physical and psychological wellbeing. As highlighted by the European Union, sport is also a source of social inclusion, and an excellent tool for the integration of minorities and groups at risk of social exclusion.
The oculomotor nucleus is divided into: 1. somatic medial column innervating the superior rectus muscle and somatic lateral column, further subdivided into a lateral column innervating the inferior rectus, inferior oblique and medial rectus muscles; 2. central nucleus innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle; 3. visceral nucleus innervating the pupillary sphincter muscle, consisting of the following two groups of neurons: cholinergic, preganglionic neurons supplying the ciliary ganglion, termed the Edinger-Westphal preganglionic (EWpg) neuron population, and the centrally projecting, peptidergic neurons, termed the Edinger-Westphal centrally projecting (EWcp) population. A detailed understanding of the position of both nuclei and their subgroups supplying the individual muscles is an essential prerequisite for eye movement assessment, offering a simple clinical method for diagnosing eventual dysfunctions of eye movement generation pathways.