This paper summarizes, in a modern fashion and with a number of molecular, functional and magnetic resonance imaging details, the main morphological data about the trigeminal complex (i.e., trigeminal nerve, ganglion and nucleus). Indeed, this information is the basis to understand pathophysiology and semiotics of diseases involving these anatomical structures.
In recent years, the number of contrastographic exams has increased considerably, compared to an increase in the complications related to this type of interventional approach. A number of specialists (interventional radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, cardiac surgeons, etc.) have to deal with complications related to the procedure or contrast medium (CM) used. With regard to the latter, contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is commonly defined as an increase in serum creatinine (sCr) concentration of 0.5 mg / dL or 25% above baseline within 48 h of CM administration. It is the third most common cause of hospital - acquired renal failure, with an incidence rate that varies from 1 to 25% depending on patient comorbidities. It carries with it a lifelong dialysis therapy risk of 0.5 - 2%. CIN is a condition that can affect anyone subjected to a contrastographic exam, although there are groups at increased risk. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the methods used for CIN management, and detail the risk factors associated, with particular emphasis on score systems created to categorise patients according to CIN risk after procedure. The aim is also to create an easy and quick tool to guide doctors presented with a patient facing an injection of CM for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The current treatment regimes for glioblastoma demonstrated a low efficiency and offer a poor prognosis. Advancements in conventional treatment strategies have only yielded modest improvements in overall survival. The heat shockproteins, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and Hsp90, serve these pivotal roles in tumor cells and have been identified as effective targets for developing therapeutics. This topic review summarizes the current preclinical and clinical evidences and rationale to define the potential of HO-1 and Hsp90 in GBM progression and chemoresistance.
In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, this review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.
Gene expression in mammalians is a very finely controlled mechanism, and bidirectional promoters can be considered one of the most compelling examples of the accuracy of genic expression coordination. Asrecently reported, a bidirectional promoter regulates the expression of the PDCD10 (whose mutations cause familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCMs) and SERPINI1 gene pair, even though they are non-homologous genes. The aim of this study was to identify any potential common roles of these two coregulated genes. An in-silico approach was used to identify functional correlations, using the BioGraph, IPA® and Cytoscape tools and the KEGG pathway database. The results obtained show that PDCD10 and SERPINI1 may co-regulate some cellular processes, particularly those related to focal adhesion maintenance. All common pathways identified for PDCD10 and SERPINI1 are closely associated with the pathogenic characteristics of CCMs; we thus hypothesize that genes involved in these networks may contribute to the development of CCMs.
The practice of sport, intended not just as a physical activity performed exclusively for athletic competition, represents a key element for growth on an emotional and social level. Practicing sports can help to enhance one’s self- and body awareness through multidimensional dynamic and ludic activity. In this context, sport becomes an educational and training tool, and is often a forerunner of social change. Sports practice combining physical activity with recreational activity, can, in fact, promote health and longevity, as well as physical and psychological wellbeing. As highlighted by the European Union, sport is also a source of social inclusion, and an excellent tool for the integration of minorities and groups at risk of social exclusion.
The oculomotor nucleus is divided into: 1. somatic medial column innervating the superior rectus muscle and somatic lateral column, further subdivided into a lateral column innervating the inferior rectus, inferior oblique and medial rectus muscles; 2. central nucleus innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle; 3. visceral nucleus innervating the pupillary sphincter muscle, consisting of the following two groups of neurons: cholinergic, preganglionic neurons supplying the ciliary ganglion, termed the Edinger-Westphal preganglionic (EWpg) neuron population, and the centrally projecting, peptidergic neurons, termed the Edinger-Westphal centrally projecting (EWcp) population. A detailed understanding of the position of both nuclei and their subgroups supplying the individual muscles is an essential prerequisite for eye movement assessment, offering a simple clinical method for diagnosing eventual dysfunctions of eye movement generation pathways.
Nutraceuticals constitute a group of functional foods that provide added health bene-fits for various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). The main groups of nutraceuticals include probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 and antioxidants. Studies on Nutraceutical showed that this type of food possessed similar proprieties to drugs but with the benefit of not having side effects.
This mini review shows that probiotics and prebiotics, when administered simultane-ously with traditional therapies, reduce IBD symptoms and reduce synthesis of en-zymes probably involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Moreover, Omega 3 reduces the synthesis of inflammation mediators and prevents carcinogenesis through interaction with the signaling pathway NOTCH1/MMP9. Moreover, antioxidants reduce the inflam-matory process by inhibiting the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, and inhibit the mechanisms of cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis.
In brief, nutraceuticals have gained a huge clinical interest since they could be used along with traditional therapy. Bioavailability studies of nutraceutical supplements guarantee a correct intake of the substance by oral administration, a matter which would not have been possible to have entirely with the consumption of regular food only.
The high incidence of HIV, especially in sub-Saharan African countries, and the in-crease of life expectancy due to effectiveness antiretroviral therapies, have led to an increase of patients undergoing surgery interventions. To date there is still no defini-tive data on role, outcome and management of HIV positive surgical subjects. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HIV infection, highlighting the main pathologies treated by thoracic, abdominal and orthopedic surgery, without forgetting about other surgery branches. Particular attention was paid to Mozambique, a devel-oping country with one of the highest levels of HIV incidence.
Historically, only the energy storage function had been attributed to adipose tissue. However, recent studies have shown that it is also able to secrete several substances which act in a paracrine or endocrine manner, contributing to the maintenance of or-ganism’s homeostasis. It has been reported that the visceral fat has distinctive secret-ing characteristics. Based on previous scientific observations, here we shall describe the possible functional role of epiploic appendages. The epiploic appendages may play an important role in the metabolic regulation and/or in immune defense through the secretion of specific factors, such as leptin and some inflammatory cytokines. Leptin has been seen to be involved both in the regulation of hunger signals, in coordination with the hypothalamus, and in complex immune defense processes. The exact under-standing of the behavior of this hormone could play a key role in understanding the functions ascribed to the epiploic appendages.