Gene expression in mammalians is a very finely controlled mechanism, and bidirectional promoters can be
considered one of the most compelling examples of the accuracy of genic expression coordination. As
recently reported, a bidirectional promoter regulates the expression of the PDCD10(whose mutations
cause familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCMs) and SERPINI1 gene pair, even though they are
non-homologous genes. The aim of this study was to identify any potential common roles of these two coregulated
genes. An in-silico approach was used to identify functional correlations, using the BioGraph,
IPA® and Cytoscape tools and the KEGG pathway database. The results obtained show that PDCD10 and
SERPINI1 may co-regulate some cellular processes, particularly those related to focal adhesion
maintenance. All common pathways identified for PDCD10 and SERPINI1 are closely associated with the
pathogenic characteristics of CCMs; we thus hypothesize that genes involved in these networks may
contribute to the development of CCMs.
The practice of sport, intended not just as a physical activity performed exclusively for athletic
competition, represents a key element for growth on an emotional and social level. Practicing sports can
help to enhance one’s self- and body awareness through multidimensional dynamic and ludic activity. In
this context, sport becomes an educational and training tool, and is often a forerunner of social change.
Sports practice combining physical activity with recreational activity, can, in fact, promote health and
longevity, as well as physical and psychological wellbeing. As highlighted by the European Union, sport
is also a source of social inclusion, and an excellent tool for the integration of minorities and groups at risk
of social exclusion.
The oculomotor nucleus is divided into: 1. somatic medial column innervating the superior rectus muscle and somatic lateral column, further subdivided into a lateral column innervating the inferior rectus, inferior oblique and medial rectus muscles; 2. central nucleus innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle; 3. visceral nucleus innervating the pupillary sphincter muscle, consisting of the following two groups of neurons: cholinergic, preganglionic neurons supplying the ciliary ganglion, termed the Edinger-Westphal preganglionic (EWpg) neuron population, and the centrally projecting, peptidergic neurons, termed the Edinger-Westphal centrally projecting (EWcp) population. A detailed understanding of the position of both nuclei and their subgroups supplying the individual muscles is an essential prerequisite for eye movement assessment, offering a simple clinical method for diagnosing eventual dysfunctions of eye movement generation pathways.
Nutraceuticals constitute a group of functional foods that provide added health bene-fits for various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). The main groups of nutraceuticals include probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 and antioxidants. Studies on Nutraceutical showed that this type of food possessed similar proprieties to drugs but with the benefit of not having side effects.
This mini review shows that probiotics and prebiotics, when administered simultane-ously with traditional therapies, reduce IBD symptoms and reduce synthesis of en-zymes probably involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Moreover, Omega 3 reduces the synthesis of inflammation mediators and prevents carcinogenesis through interaction with the signaling pathway NOTCH1/MMP9. Moreover, antioxidants reduce the inflam-matory process by inhibiting the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, and inhibit the mechanisms of cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis.
In brief, nutraceuticals have gained a huge clinical interest since they could be used along with traditional therapy. Bioavailability studies of nutraceutical supplements guarantee a correct intake of the substance by oral administration, a matter which would not have been possible to have entirely with the consumption of regular food only.
The high incidence of HIV, especially in sub-Saharan African countries, and the in-crease of life expectancy due to effectiveness antiretroviral therapies, have led to an increase of patients undergoing surgery interventions. To date there is still no defini-tive data on role, outcome and management of HIV positive surgical subjects. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HIV infection, highlighting the main pathologies treated by thoracic, abdominal and orthopedic surgery, without forgetting about other surgery branches. Particular attention was paid to Mozambique, a devel-oping country with one of the highest levels of HIV incidence.
Historically, only the energy storage function had been attributed to adipose tissue. However, recent studies have shown that it is also able to secrete several substances which act in a paracrine or endocrine manner, contributing to the maintenance of or-ganism’s homeostasis. It has been reported that the visceral fat has distinctive secret-ing characteristics. Based on previous scientific observations, here we shall describe the possible functional role of epiploic appendages. The epiploic appendages may play an important role in the metabolic regulation and/or in immune defense through the secretion of specific factors, such as leptin and some inflammatory cytokines. Leptin has been seen to be involved both in the regulation of hunger signals, in coordination with the hypothalamus, and in complex immune defense processes. The exact under-standing of the behavior of this hormone could play a key role in understanding the functions ascribed to the epiploic appendages.
Fatty liver diseases are a spectrum of liver pathologies characterized by abnormal hepatocellular accumulations of lipids. This condition may occur in both adults and children, particularly those who are obese or have insulin resistance or following abuse of alcohol consumption. They are classified in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (AFLD). Steatohepatitis is a specific pattern of injury within the spectrum of NAFLD and this pattern is associated with fibrotic pro-gression and cirrhosis. The role of oxidative stress in liver steatosis production and its progression to inflammation leading to steatohepatitis has been discussed in relation to alterations in metabolic and pro-inflammatory pathway. One of the main enzymes responsible for antioxidant activity in the presence of liver damage is the Heme Oxy-genase-1(HO-1).The products of the HO-1-catalyzed reaction, particularly carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is inter-esting to note that induction of HO-1 expression contributes to protection against liver damage in various experimental models. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against fatty liver diseases.
For the benefit of medical students, in this paper we examine the somatotopic organi-zation of the spinal cord, which shows a similar organization in mammalians. The dor-sal horn is comprised of sensory nuclei with deutoneurons; the lateral horn contains preganglionic visceral motoneurons; the ventral horn is subdivided into a medial col-umn innervating the paravertebral muscles, a central column, C3-C6, innervating the diaphragm, and a lateral column innervating the limb muscles. In the lateral column of the ventral horn, the dorsal motoneuron groups innervate the intrinsc arm muscles; the dorsal posterior motoneuron groups innervate hand muscles; the lateroventral motoneuron groups innervate the shoulder. Furthermore, the rostral and caudal moto-neuron groups innervate the proximal and the distal muscles, respectively. In cat spi-nal cord, the medial columns 1-2 innervate the paravertebral muscles, and columns 3-6 are divisible into groups, each innervating specific muscle groups. In human spinal cord, 11 motor columns have been identified: column 1 is located in the medial part and columns 2-11 in the lateral part of the ventral horn. Columns 1-2 extend to S3, while columns 3-8 are confined to the cervical and T1 segments, and columns 9-11 are situated in the lumbosacral segments.
Milk thistle is a herbaceous plant and is part of the characteristic vegetation of all those lands that overlook the Mediterranean Sea. The plant is known for its use as a herbal medicine. This medicinal plant is known for its beneficial properties for the treatment of liver disorders and other diseases. Such effects are related to its ability to act as free radical scavenger as well as to the activation of antioxidant enzymatic system (i.e. heme oxygenase-1). The aim of the present review is to provide a tool for the clinicians in order to exploit the beneficial effects of milk thistle expecially for those conditions in which the modern pharmacology has not yet developed a success-fult strategy of treatment (i.e. Nonalcoholic Liver Disease).