Introduction: Thoracic splenosis is an acquired rare condition, resulting from het-erotopic autotransplantation of splenic parenchyma into chest, usually after traumatic spleen and diaphragm rupture. Methods and Results: This paper describes the thoracic splenosis, as an incidental di-agnosis and asymptomatic condition, 34 years after a thoracoabdominal trauma in a patient who underwent radiological investigations due to a 15 kg weight loss in the previous four months: the only abnormalities found were thoraco-parapericardial and abdominal nodules of splenosis. Discussion: Thoracic splenosis is a rare condition, usually following a thoracoabdomi-nal trauma with concomitant lesions of the spleen and diaphragm, which allow tho-racic implantation of splenic tissue. Patients are generally asymptomatic, and the con-dition is discovered incidentally during radiological investigations, which allow certain diagnosis without using invasive methods. Excision of splenosis should be considered for symptomatic patients or unconfirmed diagnosis. Conclusions: Thoracic splenosis is a rare condition. Imaging investigations allow to diagnose the condition, and excision of splenosis is not suggested for asymptomatic patients
Fatty liver diseases are a spectrum of liver pathologies characterized by abnormal hepatocellular accumulations of lipids. This condition may occur in both adults and children, particularly those who are obese or have insulin resistance or following abuse of alcohol consumption. They are classified in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (AFLD). Steatohepatitis is a specific pattern of injury within the spectrum of NAFLD and this pattern is associated with fibrotic pro-gression and cirrhosis. The role of oxidative stress in liver steatosis production and its progression to inflammation leading to steatohepatitis has been discussed in relation to alterations in metabolic and pro-inflammatory pathway. One of the main enzymes responsible for antioxidant activity in the presence of liver damage is the Heme Oxy-genase-1(HO-1).The products of the HO-1-catalyzed reaction, particularly carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is inter-esting to note that induction of HO-1 expression contributes to protection against liver damage in various experimental models. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against fatty liver diseases.
For the benefit of medical students, in this paper we examine the somatotopic organi-zation of the spinal cord, which shows a similar organization in mammalians. The dor-sal horn is comprised of sensory nuclei with deutoneurons; the lateral horn contains preganglionic visceral motoneurons; the ventral horn is subdivided into a medial col-umn innervating the paravertebral muscles, a central column, C3-C6, innervating the diaphragm, and a lateral column innervating the limb muscles. In the lateral column of the ventral horn, the dorsal motoneuron groups innervate the intrinsc arm muscles; the dorsal posterior motoneuron groups innervate hand muscles; the lateroventral motoneuron groups innervate the shoulder. Furthermore, the rostral and caudal moto-neuron groups innervate the proximal and the distal muscles, respectively. In cat spi-nal cord, the medial columns 1-2 innervate the paravertebral muscles, and columns 3-6 are divisible into groups, each innervating specific muscle groups. In human spinal cord, 11 motor columns have been identified: column 1 is located in the medial part and columns 2-11 in the lateral part of the ventral horn. Columns 1-2 extend to S3, while columns 3-8 are confined to the cervical and T1 segments, and columns 9-11 are situated in the lumbosacral segments.
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