Ilaria Giusti, Serena Bianchi, Stefania A Nottola, Guido Macchiarelli, Vincenza Dolo
Electron microscopy (EM) is a revolutionary imaging technique for obtaining high-resolution images of biological specimens in many fields, including the study of human ovarian tissues. EM, can be a powerful tool in many clinical fields, such as in therapeutic procedures for infertility. The success of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), for example, is closely related to oocyte’s quality, whose morphological features can be evaluated by EM to understand if the oocyte is mature, healthy and prone to fecundation. Moreover, EM studies are useful to demonstrate the responsiveness of the ovarian cells to environmental toxicants. EM can also be the starting point for the study of the release of extracellular vesicles from human ovarian cancer cells. These structures represent an attractive target of studies aimed at identifying clinically useful markers for liquid biopsies. This paper summarizes the potential applications of EM in ART and ovarian pathologies and its clinical implications.