In Italy there is an ongoing debate on the need to clarify the legal aspects related to the clinical activities of medical residents. While residents attend university medical schools, specific policies should be implemented to guarantee their proper utilization in health organizations also for the direct and indirect legal responsibilities of patients health and safety. It seems necessary to create an uniform and clearer legal framework to surmount criticism of the utilization of residents. We recommend Ministries of University and Health to change the current training contract into a job-training one, in line with experiences for residents of other European countries. This initiative could promote a no-blame culture and also help Italian specialist doctors of future generations to be trained in order to move and be competitive across European country borders and finally promote the sustainability of the Italian public NHS through a patient-centred and inter-professional integrated approach.