Occupational dermatosis is defined as a skin pathology expressed as a result of factors mainly associated with the work environment. Given the considerable heterogeneity of skin pathologies that are possible in the work environment, it was decided not to use the term dermatitis but dermatosis, which is generic but more appropriate for such pathological conditions. Many occupational activities can lead to skin diseases, especially when the exposure is very intense, such as the construction industry, the metal industry, the chemical industry, etc. In many developed countries, including the countries of the European Union, occupational skin diseases are the second most common occupational disease, after musculoskeletal disorders. The high incidence of such diseases is attributable to tens of thousands of chemicals used in the workplace in different formulations, such as solvents, heavy metals, benzene, cleaning products, pesticides, etc. The purpose of our review is to provide precise guidance on how to perform proper health surveillance. Health surveillance of workers exposed to any occupational sensitizing agent is intended to identify any individual factors of hypersusceptibility during preventive examinations, and preclinical signs during periodic examinations, to allow early diagnosis of disease by means of level 2 diagnostic testing. The judgments of suitability issued, also in order to safeguard the specific professionalism of the worker, must as far as possible resort to measures based on “prescriptions” motivated and feasible, not limitations equivalent to changes of job and therefore not feasible.