Donatella Marchese, Rosalia Gargano, Francesco Dispenza, Federico Sireci, Carmelo Saraniti, Francesco Riggio, Francesco Lorusso, Marco Pollarolo, Riccardo Anzalone, Salvatore Gallina
The incidence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) in the pediatric population is about 2%. The diagnosis is based on the employment of questionnaires, and polysomnography (PSG) that is the gold standard also among children. The PSG allows to classify OSAS as mild in case of 1< Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≤5, moderate if 5< AHI ≤10 and severe OSAS when the AHI is >10. If polysomnography is not available, we need alternative diagnostic tests such as nocturnal oximetry studies and respiratory polygraphy. The risk factors identified are different from adults, first tonsillar hypertrophy wins over others. The symptoms and signs described are similar to adult population, but sleep enuresis, neurocognitive impairment and behavioral problems (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning problems) are typical of pediatric OSAS.